**Quantum communication cannot simulate a public coin**

We study the simultaneous message passing model of communication complexity. Building on the quantum fingerprinting protocol of Buhrman et al., Yao recently showed that a large class of efficient classical public-coin protocols can be turned into efficient quantum protocols without public coin. This raises the question whether this can be done always, i.e., whether quantum communication can always replace a public coin in the SMP model. We answer this question in the negative, exhibiting a communication problem where classical communication with public coin is exponentially more efficient than quantum communication. Together with a separation in the other direction due to Bar-Yossef et al., this shows that the quantum SMP model is incomparable with the classical public-coin SMP model. In addition we give a characterization of the power of quantum fingerprinting by means of a connection to geometrical tools from machine learning, a quadratic improvement of Yao's simulation, and a nearly tight analysis of the Hamming distance problem from Yao's paper.